Posts tagged ‘research’

August 30, 2014

Storyboarding Tips

by Suzy Walker-Toye

I found this interesting blog post from cartoonist Ben Caldwell – tips on storyboarding from Dreamwworks!

The tips are basically these but visit his post to see the awesome illustrations that go with these tips:

  • Avoid flat staging unless when necessary
  • Lay down grids to help “ground” your characters & compositions
  • Use foreground, mid-ground, background, & far background to sell depth
  • Be mindful of screen space & camera positioning in your edits
  • When dealing with multiple characters try to logically group them to help making cutting back & forth easier
  • Be wary of composition in which everything is parallel to the frame
  • Careful of how you frame characters and don’t SQUEEZE them just to fit a shot, open up the fielding.
  • beware of vague “tightrope” floors, use perspective instead
  • Motivate your cuts

Tips on intimacy between characters:

  • over the shoulder shots & reaction shots help deliver dialog
  • characters squared off & looking at our left or right ear (depending on eye direction)
  • exploit different character heights if you need to establish or reestablish your shot

 

He also recommends a few other links including the amazing Toby Shelton, who shows us how its down with his Turbo storyboard at this link here.

 

Another very detailed post on storyboard sketching, specifically about directing the eye is here from the excellent seven camels blog.

This video clip shows how they did it for toy story.

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August 30, 2014

Research: Diegetic and non-diegetic sound

by Suzy Walker-Toye

Project 13 Non-diegetic sound

Non-diegetic sound originates outside the scene. It is not directly justified by the image or actions. The most common example of this is the musical soundtrack. Another example would be voice-over or narration. Sometimes the line between diegetic and non-diegetic can seem blurred. The soundscape created for a scene may include a range of audio sources taken from archive or recorded elsewhere, but if the effect is to create a soundtrack that appears to be justified within the scene it is diegetic. Conversely sounds from within a scene may be exaggerated or manipulated so that they become abstract and therefore non-diegetic. Where either of these processes are used there is also a grey area where the definition is subjective.

The most common form of non-diegetic sound is music. Music can be used to create emotion or atmosphere, to follow events or even to predict them. It sets the tone of a film, implies a range of social and cultural references, provides clues as to dates and locations and identifies genre. Music also sets the pace of scene; it can be used to justify cuts, judge timing, expand or contract time and provide continuity.

(source: p70 of course notes)

One film which springs to mind as using sound very effectively is the 5th Element. There is a sequence which illustrates non-diegetic sound that sets the pace of a scene, give clues or cues to action and creates atmosphere and emotion. The one I’m thinking of is where the Diva is performing a partially operatic song on stage (so the music is diegetic) while Leeloo is fighting the baddies in the Divas room (where the music is therefore non-diegetic). The music links the shots and in both the music sets the pace of the scenes. Leeloo punches and kicks in time with the music and the action is created with quick cuts (also paced by the music). The music is also very emotional which lends atmosphere and tension to the sequence, almost as if the Diva is changing her song because she somehow knows what is going on.

I managed to find a clip of the scene I was referring to on you tube:

When thinking of other examples of music and other non-diegetic sound used to create atmosphere, tension and emotion, one cannot help but think of any horror film you’ve ever seen. There is always some damsel in a flimsy outfit or innocent teenager heading into danger, and how do you know there’s danger before you see it? Well the music hints that there is trouble brewing of course! There is a famous sketch by comedian Eddie Izzard about this phenomena. (reference is at 8:30 in the following clip)

The Monty Python films spring to mind when thinking about sound that is hard to identify as either diegetic or non-diegetic and intentional confusion of diegetic and non-diegetic sound. In a similar way to the Blazing Saddles reference in the notes these films play on the sound effects you’d expect for a scene and then turn them on their heads, for example in a scene of King Arthur riding into view through the fog accompanied by the sound of hoofbeats, we see that actually he’s pretending to ride (he’s just walking along as you might on a hobby horse) and his servant behind him has two coconuts banging together to create the sound of the “horse”. This carries on throughout the movie. I found a clip of this too:

I was a bit puzzled at first re Music (non-diegetic) used to identify social and cultural references, but then I started to think about what sorts of music are in films that are a set abroad and realised that I couldn’t think of a film that is set in Mexico which doesn’t have at least some Mexican music in it (some examples are Desperado, Zorro, From Dusk till Dawn, the list goes on). Then you have Bollywood films which are filled with music which has cultural references even non-Bollywood films such as Slumdog Millionaire and East is East have Indian music in the soundtrack as a cultural reference. Films such as Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon also have cultural music in their score.

August 29, 2014

Why are things creepy?

by Suzy Walker-Toye

Assignment 2 was all about creating atmosphere, I ran across this video tonight and thought it was interesting:

August 20, 2014

Viewing: Dark City (1998)

by Suzy Walker-Toye

***This review contains spoilers***

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In the planning stage for my assignment 2 I did an internet search on paranoia in films just to see what would come up. One of the links I found was this top ten list of paranoid filled movies. I remember really enjoying Dark City when I first watched it (many years ago) so I took this opportunity to revisit the film with a more critical eye. The exercises in the lead up to A2 have been around mise-en-scène, compositional rules, colour & tone, and lighting so I tried to keep those in mind as I watched (and anything else that might help me out in my atmospheric A2).

There are many plot synopses of this film already online so I won’t go into too much detail on that, this is more a review about what I noticed about the film. Essentially though, an alien race, the strangers, have the ability to stop time and change the layout of the city (they call this tuning). They have set out an elaborate experiment on the human inhabitants, wiping their memories each night and replacing them with others to see what they will do. One man, John Murdoch, wakes up with the abilities to tune as the strangers do but with no memories, on the run from the police (because he was about to be imprinted with the memories of a murderer), he tries to find out who he is and what is going on in this city. One thing to note also is that I watched the cinematic cut not the director’s cut (which I read about afterwards and is apparently quite different), my dvd only had the one version on it.

One of the main things about this film is that the story is set in a city that is in perpetual night time so all of the film (except the end) is shot with artificial lighting. The tone of the film is dark & moody with dark green tones in backdrops and warm light with strong contrast on the human characters faces. There are lots of shadows (as one might expect of a film with this name). The mise-en-scène of the city shots looks like something out of an Edward Hopper painting (but a lot more dark & brooding, with less colours). I love this quote from another review I read:

“Its vast noir metropolis seems to exist in an alternate time line, with elements of our present and past combined with visions from a futuristic comic book.”

(source)

DarkCityScreenshot-6 The strangers live under the city and you see them in a sort of subterranean auditorium. When the scenes switch here the tone & colour of the film is noticeable much cooler and bluer. The strangers have pale white faces and all look and dress very similar, this adds to the unease of these scenes. The mise-en-scène of these shots are very sparse, you don’t get a sense of them at all. Just rows and rows of almost identical people. The light on their faces is also a cold blue, emphasising their pale features and its often lit from below to make them even more strange and sinister. DarkCityScreenshot-12
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Unlike in the streets above where there are streetlamps and lit up storefronts, here it’s not obvious there the illumination is coming from. When the action is ramping up, while they do the tuning and change the city layout, there is lots of quick cuts between the blue under the ground and the yellow above at street level scenes which provides a nice visual contrast (when I noticed this I felt pleased with myself for already having the quick cuts and the colour changes in my A2 planning, otherwise I would have added it).

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The only thing that is really a normal colour is the memories and the ending because they are in the daylight. The memories are denoted with a strange circular blurring effect around the edges (like a lens baby might create) and a sound effect so that you know they are memories (it’s more effective and less corny than I just made it sound though).

 

 

Throughout the movie I noticed that the mise-en-scène of the interiors was only the barest minimum the scene needed, by which I mean because each scene is actually an interior that the strangers had to construct and fill with items that they thought relevant it is all detail which they would have needed to go to the extra effort of thinking and making for the human experiment. I noticed there was a lot of repeating motifs in the set design too, archways and circles and very geometric shapes for both internal and external scenes – as if the whole city had been designed by one collective mind (which its revealed later that it has). There are a lot of centre of the frame compositions and many scenes filmed over the shoulder of another character, or down a long corridor with steep perspective or through a doorway or archway with another character silhouetted so you could see past them. It seemed to add to the claustrophobic atmosphere of being penned in on all sides by this fake city, or going miles to nowhere down a long street or corridor. I put some screenshots I took of this below (I really need to find a better way to screen grab than my iPhone) although there are much better ones here.

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The whole film has been building to this, the final scenes are all in blazing daylight but the centrally based compositions and perspective shots maintain the look of the film even with the darkness alleviated.

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